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开云在线登录:强东走自己的路 挑战阿里马云
本文摘要:BEIJING — Just about every June, on the anniversary of his company’s founding, Richard Liu dons a big motorcycle helmet and red uniform, hops on a three-wheeled electric bike and makes home deliveries for his e-commerce company JD.com.北京——完全每年6月,在公司正式成立的周年纪念日上,刘强东都会戴着上一顶大大的摩托车头盔,穿着上红色的穿著,跳跃上一辆三轮电动车,为他的电子商务公司京东车主。

BEIJING — Just about every June, on the anniversary of his company’s founding, Richard Liu dons a big motorcycle helmet and red uniform, hops on a three-wheeled electric bike and makes home deliveries for his e-commerce company JD.com.北京——完全每年6月,在公司正式成立的周年纪念日上,刘强东都会戴着上一顶大大的摩托车头盔,穿着上红色的穿著,跳跃上一辆三轮电动车,为他的电子商务公司京东车主。It is in part a publicity stunt for Mr. Liu, the 41-year-old billionaire who is the company’s chairman and chief executive. But it is also a way to better understand the technical and logistical challenges facing JD, which is in a pitched battle for e-commerce supremacy in the world’s second-biggest economy after the United States.这是京东董事局主席兼任首席执行官、41岁的亿万富翁刘强东的公共宣传活动的部分内容。但是,通过这种方式,人们也能更佳地理解京东在技术和物流方面所面对的挑战。目前,京东正在次于美国的世界第二大经济体中,白热化地争夺战电商霸主的地位。

Long overshadowed by its rival Alibaba, JD has emerged as China’s other online goliath by carving out its own distinct identity.长年弥漫在输掉阿里巴巴阴影下的京东,也通过刻画自己的独有身份,沦为了中国的另一个网络巨头。While Alibaba’s marketplace serves as a platform to connect buyers and sellers, JD buys goods from manufacturers and distributors and holds the inventory in its own warehouses, in a model that echoes Amazon’s. It then arranges for quick delivery of virtually everything from television sets and refrigerators to socks and T-shirts, using motorbikes that weave in and out of traffic in some of the country’s biggest cities.阿里巴巴的市场获取了一个相连买家和卖家的平台,京东则从制造商和分销商手中出售商品,把存货放到自己的仓库里,这种模式与亚马逊(Amazon)类似于。然后,它不会决定较慢车主服务,其仓储的商品包罗万象,既有电视机、冰箱,也有袜子和T恤,车主的摩托车在中国大型城市的车流中进进出出。

Like Amazon, JD has invested heavily in infrastructure, pumping more than $1.5 billion into building and leasing warehouses and order-fulfillment centers around China. But JD has gone even further, venturing into home delivery with its own fleet of trucks and more than 20,000 couriers, all in the hope of capturing what is projected to be a $1 trillion Chinese e-commerce market by 2020.与亚马逊一样,京东也在基础设施方面投放了巨资,耗资逾15亿美元(约合94亿元人民币)在中国各地修筑和出租仓库与配送中心。但是,京东采行了更进一步的措施,甚至还在用自己的货车和20000余名租车员获取送货到家的服务。这一切都是为了夺回中国的电商市场。到2020年,中国电商市场预计将约1万亿美元。

JD, which is publicly traded in the United States, is now China’s biggest direct-sales retailer, with 46 million active users and an estimated $20 billion in revenue last year.已在美国上市的京东目前是中国仅次于的传销零售商,去年享有4600万活跃用户和约200亿美元收益。“This isn’t a business model for everyone, but they were smart to build it,” said Elinor Leung, a Hong Kong-based Internet analyst at CLSA, an investment bank. “Now, their traffic is exploding.”“这种商业模式并不限于于每个人,但他们去创建起这个模式是很明智的,”投资银行里昂证券(CLSA)派驻香港的网络分析师梁向奕(Elinor Leung)说道。

“现在,他们的流量正在飞速快速增长。”And yet this costly approach to building an online retailer has worried some analysts, who say that JD could be weighed down by its physical assets and mounting debt. Several analysts say the company won’t turn a profit before 2017. Competitors like Jack Ma, chairman of Alibaba, have even disparaged the company’s business model, calling it tragically flawed.然而,这种打造出在线零售商的方式成本高昂,让一些分析人士极为担忧。


“It’s not that we are better,” Mr. Ma said in a recently published interview. “It’s an issue of direction. So, I tell my people: Definitely do not get involved with JD.com. Don’t come blaming us if you die one day.” He later apologized for his comments.“不是我比他强劲,”马云在近期公开发表的一次专访中说道。“而是方向性的问题。所以,我在公司再三告诉他大家,千万不要去摸京东。别到时候自己杀了隆上我们。

”他后来对自己的言论回应了致歉。Executives at JD, which is based in Beijing, insist they are building a company that will eventually have a commanding advantage in e-commerce, with strong customer service, speedy delivery and assurances that the products it ships are authentic, not counterfeit. Among the biggest challenges now, they say, is keeping up with an enormous volume of online orders, which have doubled in each of the last three years.京东总部设于北京,其高管坚决指出,他们正在建设的公司,最后将在电商行业取得压倒性优势,享有强劲的客户服务,较慢的运输,并且能确保它载运的货物是真品,而非仿冒品。


他们称之为,目前面对着许多根本性挑战,其中之一就是应付数量极大的网络订单。过去三年中的每一年,网络订单的数量都翻了一番。“If we wanted, we could be profitable right now,” said Shen Haoyu, chief executive of JD Mall, the company’s biggest division. “But our immediate goal is to grow our customer base.”“只要我们想要,立刻可以构建盈利,”公司仅次于部门京东商城的首席执行官沈皓瑜说道。

“但是我们的近期目标是不断扩大客户群。”JD is a product of its founder’s ambitions. The son of a cargo shipowner, Mr. Liu grew up in one of the poorest parts of east China’s Jiangsu Province, before arriving in Beijing to study sociology at Renmin University.京东是其创始人远大抱负的产物。刘强东是一个货运船主的儿子,在中国东部省份江苏省最贫困的地区长大,后来在坐落于北京的中国人民大学主修社会学。During his spare time in college, he wrote software code and earned enough money to buy a small restaurant near campus. He says the restaurant failed after staff members embezzled large sums of money.大学期间,他利用业余时间写出软件代码,用挣来的钱在学校附近进了一家小餐厅。

他说道,由于餐厅员工伪造了一大笔钱,餐厅最后破产。After college, Mr. Liu, whose Chinese name is Liu Qiangdong, worked briefly for a Japanese company before going into business for himself. He rented space at an electronics market in the city’s high-tech zone, called Zhongguancun, to sell software and electronics, including compact disc burners. Within a few years, he owned brick-and-mortar electronics shops in three cities.大学毕业后,刘强东在创业前曾在一家日企工作。

他在北京的高科技区中关村的电子产品市场出租了一个摊位买软件、电子产品和光盘刻录机。几年之内,他就在三座城市享有了实体电子商店。In 2004, when his stores began selling goods on the web, online shopping was just beginning to take shape in China, led by start-ups like Dangdang, Joyo and Alibaba’s Taobao site. JD, whose English name at the time was 360Buy.com, thrived on low prices and fast delivery, part of its motto today.2004年,当他的商店开始在网上销售商品时,由当当、卓越和阿里巴巴的淘宝网所领导的中国网络购物刚刚开始成形。

当时英文名还叫作360Buy.com的京东,凭借便宜的价格和较慢的车主取得了蓬勃发展,这两点在今天是京东的格言。With money running low in 2006, Mr. Liu sought $2 million from a Hong Kong venture capital firm. The firm, Capital Today, put up $10 million instead, for a large minority stake. The stake is now worth close to $2.4 billion, even after the firm sold some of its shares.2006年,由于资金不足,刘强东打算从一家香港风险投资公司提供200万美元(约合1250万元人民币)的资金。

但这家投资公司——今日资本——获取了1000万美元,以提供少数股份。尽管该公司出售了一些股票,其股份价值现在仍相似24亿美元。The capital injection helped JD expand its product offering beyond electronics and develop new systems and software. The expansion, in turn, helped lure bigger investors, such as Tiger Global, the Russian billionaire Yuri Milner, Prince Alwaleed bin Talal of Saudi Arabia and the Waltons, the family behind Walmart Stores.这些资金协助京东拓展了产品供应,在电子设备以外还获取其他产品,研发新的系统和软件。

产品供应的拓展协助京东更有了更大的投资商,比如老虎环球(Tiger Global)、俄罗斯亿万富翁尤里·米尔纳(Yuri Milner)、沙特阿拉伯王子瓦利德·本·塔拉纳(Alwaleed bin Talal),以及沃尔玛餐馆(Wal-Mart Stores)背后的沃尔顿家族(Waltons)。“The first time I met him, I knew he was smart and trustworthy, and that he had a killer instinct,” said Kathy Xu, the partner who led the Capital Today investment.今日资本合伙人、总裁徐新说,“我一次看到他时,我告诉他很聪慧、可信,他有一种好胜心。”Investors bought into Mr. Liu’s vision for a full-service online retailer.投资商坚信刘强东对获取全面服务的网络零售商的未来发展。

At the time, China’s package delivery services were terrible. The country had new roads and bridges, but truck shipments were hampered by poor service, toll roads and other bottlenecks. With no Chinese equivalent of FedEx or UPS, packages often arrived late, in dented boxes.当时,中国的租车服务十分差劲。中国修建了新的公路和新的大桥,但卡车运输却因为差劲的服务,收费公路及其他瓶颈而阻碍。中国没类似于联邦快递(FedEx)和UPS的租车服务公司,包覆常常无法及时抵达,而且还被压得变形。

“Back then, 70 percent of our complaints were about deliveries, and everything was very slow,” Mr. Liu said during an interview at the company’s headquarters. “We realized logistics is related to user experience.”“当时,在我们接到的滋扰中,70%是关于租车,每一个环节都极快,”刘强东在公司总部拒绝接受专访时说。“我们意识到物流与用户体验有关。”So beginning in 2007, JD did something no other Chinese e-commerce company was willing to do then or since. It started building an integrated logistics network from scratch, promising to cater to customers from click to drop-off.因此从2007年开始,京东做到了其他中国电子商务公司当时或以后都不愿做到的事情。京东从零开始,修建综合物流网络,允诺为顾客获取从下单到车主的服务。

Today, the company boasts seven fulfillment centers and 118 warehouses in 39 cities. There are also 1,045 smaller pickup centers in about 500 cities. And since 2010, the company has pledged that most online orders placed before 11 at night will be delivered by 3 p.m. the next day.如今,京东享有七个物流中心,在39个城市创建了118个仓库,还在约500个城市成立了1045个自提点。自2010年以来,京东允诺大多数在晚上11点前递交的网络订单都将在第二天下午3点前送往。Morgan Stanley calls JD’s business model a combination of Amazon and UPS; other analysts say the company is beginning to look like Walmart, steeped in logistics and infrastructure and backed by a website.摩根士丹利(Morgan Stanley)称之为京东的商业模式是亚马逊和UPS的结合体;还有一些分析人士回应,该公司现在看上去类似于沃尔玛,致力于物流和基础设施,同时又有网站不作承托。

JD “has made it clear they will not only be a retailer but also an online supply chain and finance company, said Lu Jianping, who teaches e-commerce at East China Normal University in Shanghai. “Retail is not profitable but it offers trading volume and cash flow. In the future, the main profits will come from finance and the supply chain.京东“早已指出,他们某种程度是零售商,还不会是网络供应链、金融公司”,上海华东师范大学电子商务教师陆建平说道。“做到零售没利润,但能产生交易量和现金流。未来,主要的利润来自金融及供应链业务。”By following its own path, JD has sought to make online shopping easier for China’s growing consumer class, promising authentic goods, delivered on time, for little or no delivery fee — and with a receipt, something hard to come by in a country where tax evasion is rampant.京东修筑了自己的道路,谋求为中国较慢减少的消费阶层获取便捷的网络购物服务,允诺获取可信商品,按时车主,只缴纳少量运费或免费,并获取发票。

在这个洗钱不道德横行的国家,很难取得发票。Today, traffic to its website is exploding and the company is filling more than two million orders a day. No other direct sales retailer in the world has seen its revenue grow as quickly as JD, not even Amazon.如今,公司网站流量爆增,每天发送到的订单多达200多万份。在这个世界上,没哪家传销零售商的收益增长速度赶得上京东,还包括亚马逊。

American Internet start-ups have struggled in China. Amazon made its big foray into China in 2004, when it paid $75 million to acquire Joyo.com, then one of China’s biggest e-commerce start-ups. A decade later, Amazon’s China operation has less than 2 percent of the online shopping market, according to iResearch Consulting.美国网络初创公司在中国举步维艰。亚马逊于2004年乘机转入中国市场,当时该公司斥资7500万美元并购了卓越网——当时中国仅次于的电子商务初创公司。艾瑞咨询集团(iResearch Consulting Group)获取的数据表明,10年之后,亚马逊中国的业务在网络购物市场中所占到的份额将近2%。

And though Alibaba is better known in the United States, Mr. Liu, JD’s biggest shareholder, is finding a warm reception. He led the company’s public stock offering on the Nasdaq early last year, which raised $1.78 billion.阿里巴巴在美国的名气比京东大,但京东仅次于股东刘强东于是以受到热烈欢迎。去年早些时候,刘强东率领公司在纳斯达克上海证券交易所上市,筹措到17.8亿美元。Around the same time, he also struck a deal with China’s social media and mobile gaming giant Tencent, which allows JD to tap into Tencent’s huge user base. Tencent now owns about 20 percent of JD.刘强东在刚好还与中国社交媒体、移动游戏巨头腾讯达成协议,让京东可以利用腾讯极大的用户群。

腾讯现在持有人京东20%的股份。Mr. Liu is also pushing JD into online groceries and finance, and lending to his vendors the way Alibaba does. But unlike Alibaba and Amazon, he says he has little interest in developing film or entertainment divisions.刘强东还将率领京东投身于网购生鲜及金融方面的业务,像阿里巴巴一样为商家获取贷款。但与阿里巴巴、亚马逊有所不同,刘强东称之为他对开办电影或娱乐部门没多大兴趣。“We don’t want to produce films or TV shows, but finance, yes,” Mr. Liu said, before returning to his thoughts on infrastructure. “And every few years we’ll invest in new warehouses. We need some temperature-controlled warehouses.”“我们想制作电影或电视节目,但不愿投身于金融领域,”在返回有关基础设施的谈话前,刘强东说道。




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